Poorer Countries and the Environment: Friends or Foes?
Published in: World Development Vol. 72, pp. 419–431, 2015 0305-750X/Ó 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This article focuses on delineating the conditions under which the governments of poorer countries become active defend- ers and protectors of the environment. It does so based on field work in two poorer countries, El Salvador and Costa Rica, where the governments have instituted moratoria on financially lucrative but environmentally destructive mining in order to protect the environ- ment. Building on these case studies and prior work, the article posits three conditions—related to civil society, the private sector, and the public sector—under which governments of poorer countries implement policies that favor environmental ends over shorter term economic rewards.