Published in: World Development Vol. 72, pp. 419–431, 2015 0305-750X/Ó 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd., This article focuses on delineating the conditions under which the governments of poorer countries become active defend- ers and protectors of the environment. It does so based on field work in two poorer countries, El Salvador and Costa Rica, where the governments have instituted moratoria on financially lucrative but environmentally destructive mining in order to protect the environ- ment. Building on these case studies and prior work, the article posits three conditions—related to civil society, the private sector, and the public sector—under which governments of poorer countries implement policies that favor environmental ends over shorter term economic rewards.
Published in: Globalizations
December 2004, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 129–154, During the final two decades of the twentieth century, development theory and practice were dominated by a neoliberal ‘Washington Consensus’. This article analyzes the shifting debate over that Consensus. The article focuses on the current ‘elite’ debate about the Consensus in an attempt to gauge the extent of change. It does so by coding primary research materials according to specific Consensus tenets to analyze (1) the individual and collective positions of several prominent, elite actors termed the ‘break-aways’; and (2) the editorial positions of leading publications that serve as key, elite ‘voices’. Washington Consensus tenets are broken into five categories: trade liberalization, deregulation, privatization, financial liberalization and debt-crisis management. This analysis of primary texts leads to the Conclusion that the ‘Washington Consensus’ no longer prevails as an elite northern Consensus, and we are presently not only in a period of debate, but in the midst of a paradigm shift.