A Quiet Revolution in the Making? The Replacement of Expatriate Labor through the Feminization of the Labor Force in GCC Countries
Working Paper No. 2004-18. 36 pages. This provides an empirical overview of the utilization of expatriate labor and changes in the presence of women in each country’s workforce. These assessments also include a discussion of the educational status of Gulf women and changes in their childbearing experience. This analysis reveals that women of all GCC countries have made striking educational gains. On the other hand, the last thirty years have also been a period of national differentiation. While fertility rates have dropped in all countries and the percentage of national women in the labor force has risen, these trends are less pronounced in Saudi Arabia. Whether or not the feminization of the labor force intensifies throughout the region will depend on shifts in Saudi policy.